Láadan Made Easier
Rule 6. Láadan nouns have no plural form.
Rule 7. To make a Láadan verb plural, put the prefix "me-" at the beginning of the word.
1a. Bíi lema with wa. (The woman is gentle.)
Note: Because Láadan words try to maintain a sound pattern in which consonants alternate with vowels, an /h/ is inserted between "me-" and any word that starts with a vowel.
2a, Bíi ada with wa. (The woman laughs.)
Rule 8. Láadan doesn't mark time on its verbs; it has no markers like the "-ed" morpheme that marks past time in English. Instead, it puts a time _auxiliary_ right before the verb. Two of these auxiliaries are "eril" (past time) and "aril" (future time).
4a. Bíi aril ada with wa. (The woman will laugh.)
Rule 9. Láadan has a set of suffixes that can be added to the Speech Act Markers to carry additional information. Here are eight of them:
said in anger: -d
7a. Bíi shóod le wa. (I'm busy.)
Note: In English we rely on body language to express most emotional meanings when we speak. When I say, "I'm busy," you have to rely on such things as my tone of voice and the expression on my face to tell you whether I'm just stating a fact or am angry or joking. In written English, we rely on sequences such as "she said angrily." In Láadan, these emotional messages are lexicalized; they have a specific surface shape, whether they're spoken or written.
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Copyright © 2003 by Suzette Haden Elgin